This page summarises Dr Tony Eaude’s main publications and indicates where they can be obtained.  If you cannot access these, please contact Tony Eaude on and he will help if possible.

Among his most recent publications (with a brief summary/abstract) are:

  • Eaude, T. (2023) Reclaiming teaching as a profession based on autonomy and trust, Forum 65 (2) pp.72-82

This article considers different views of what it means to act as a professional and relates these to teaching. The traditional, covenantal one described by Shulman which emphasises autonomy and trust is contrasted with the contractual one associated with neoliberalism based on compliance with externally set standards. Restricted and extended professionality are also compared. A view of teacher professionalism based on a covenantal and extended view is essential if highly motivated teachers able to meet
the needs of children and young people and the dynamic, challenging demands of 21st century classrooms and societies are to be attracted and retained. Teachers need to take a major role in reclaiming this view.

  • Eaude, T. (2023) Reflections on how young children develop a sense of beauty and should be guided in doing so, British Journal of Educational Studies (online only- hard copy version to follow) (this is open access)

This article explores tentatively how young children develop a sense of beauty and should be guided in doing so. Beauty is partly a matter of personal preference, but it implies a more profound and considered idea than what is pleasing or attractive. Beauty contributes to well-being and a flourishing life. Since ideas of beauty vary over time and are transmitted through culture and socialization, these are affected by socio-cultural factors such as gender, ethnicity, class and age. Children’s perceptions of beauty often differ from those of adults. A sense of what is beautiful or otherwise is based mainly in emotional and sensory responses but also involves cognitive processes and judgements. Unconscious learning by immersion in beautiful environments helps children sense what is beautiful. They benefit from a wide range of opportunities and experiences and time to dwell on these and to re-present them kinaesthetically, visually and using language. While the arts and nature provide particularly fertile opportunities, aesthetic development can occur in most contexts. The role of adults should be more that of facilitator, providing opportunities, encouragement and example, than instructor. Implications for the education of the whole child are considered.

  • Eaude, T. (2023) Spiritual and Moral Development In Debates in Religious Education L. Philip Barnes (ed) (2nd edition) pp. 114-125 Routledge, London

This short chapter considers young children’s spiritual and moral development , arguing that this must be a responsibility for all adults interacting with young children, as part of the education of the whole child, rather than taking place only within one or a few subject areas; while recognizing that some, including Religious Education, have an important and distinctive role.

Eaude, T. (2023) Reflections on the Role of Spirituality in How Young Children’s Identities Are Constructed, In Supporting Children and Youth Through Spiritual Education Kirmani, M., A. Chapman, B. Steele, M. Moallem and S. Scroth (Eds), pp 22-41, IGI Global,

This chapter explores how young children’s identities are constructed and how this is linked to spiritual growth as one dimension of the education of the whole child. The concepts of identity and culture are discussed. Identities are seen as constantly changing narratives involving non-linear and uneven processes, especially socialization. The influence, especially on self-esteem, of intersecting socio-cultural factors, notably gender, ethnicity/race, class and religion, and of consumerism is considered. Recognizing that spirituality defies exact description, an inclusive understanding is presented which sees spiritual growth as a process of searching for meaning, identity, purpose, and connectedness. This involves considering existential, often difficult, questions and becoming more connected to other people, the world around, and (for some) a transcendent being. Qualities such as resilience and reflectiveness and a sense of agency and belonging are emphasized, as are caring environments, trusting relationships, interdependence, adults being attuned to children and time and space.

  • Eaude, T. (2023) Enabling those becoming teachers of young children to nurture spiritual growth – Challenges, Dilemmas, and Opportunities, In Rekindling Embers of the Soul: An Examination of Spirituality Issues Relating to Teacher Education, pp. 89–106, Information Age Publishing, is due to be published shortly.

This chapter considers how those learning to become teachers of young children (up to about 11 years old) can be helped to understand and nurture children’s spiritual development and growth. Five key challenges about spirituality are considered: uncertainty about what it means and what provision entails, too fixed an understanding, whether it involves only joyful, life-enhancing experiences, whether it is mainly individualized and internal and not knowing where and how spiritual development and growth fits into the curriculum. A context of performativity and a relentless focus on literacy and numeracy is problematic in making provision for spiritual growth. Distinctive aspects of how young children learn, especially through actions and visually, rather than mainly through language, are discussed, emphasizing the importance of example, relationships, and environments that provide time and space for reflection. Teacher educators should try to enable teachers, whether pre-service or in-service, to consider what spiritual growth can entail and how to provide suitable opportunities across the whole curriculum. Drawing on the idea of signature pedagogies, teacher educators’ own pedagogies should help model how teachers can enable children’s spiritual growth.

Tony Eaude’s book Identity, Culture and Belonging: Educating Young Children for a Changing World was published by Bloomsbury Academic in February 2020 in hardback and in paperback in August 2021.

Abstract: Tony Eaude argues that the foundations of a robust but flexible identity are formed in early childhood and that children live within many intersecting and sometimes conflicting cultures. He considers three meanings of culture, associated with (often implicit) values and beliefs; the arts; and spaces for growth. In exploring how young children’s identities, as constructed and constantly changing narratives, are shaped, he discusses controversial, intersecting factors related to power in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, religion, class, physical ability and age. Eaude explores how young children learn, often tacitly, highlighting reciprocity, example, habituation and children’s agency and voice. He emphasises the importance of a sense of belonging, created through trusting relationships, and inclusive environments, with adults drawing on and extending children’s cultural capital and ‘funds of knowledge.’ Eaude shows how a holistic education requires a breadth of opportunities across and beyond the school curriculum, and highlights how play, the humanities and the arts enable children to explore how it is to be human, and to become more humane, broadening horizons and helping challenge preconceptions and stereotypes. This radical, inclusive and culturally sensitive vision, for an international audience, challenges many current assumptions about identity, culture, childhood and education.

More details including the Introduction are at this link. Some of the key ideas are discussed in the article ‘The role of culture and traditions in how young children’s identities are constructed’ details of which can be seen at Academic articles.

Tony Eaude has written a chapter for the Bloomsbury Handbook of Culture and Identity From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood. This is called ‘Social and cultural factors that influence the construction of young children’s identities: and implications for adults who care for them’ and draws on ideas discussed at greater length in his book ‘Identity, Culture and Belonging: Educating Young Children for a Changing World.’  He also co-authored with Ruth Wills the concluding chapter of the Handbook, called ‘Identity and Culture – Looking ahead at Implications for Research and Practice’. The Handbook was published in August 2021.

Tony wrote a bibliography ‘Socio-cultural Perspectives on Children’s Spirituality’ which was published in May 2022 on Oxford Bibliographies in Childhood Studies and is available at This highlights key publications in the field, with a brief summary of each. It is on-line only and is likely only to be available through university libraries and similar sites. If anyone wishes to, but cannot access it, Tony Eaude may be able to help.

Tony Eaude’s book ‘Developing the expertise of primary and elementary classroom teachers -professional learning for a changing world‘ was published by Bloomsbury Academic in January 2018. This discusses in radical and thought-provoking ways how the expertises described in his previous book ‘How do expert primary classteachers really work?’ are, and can be, developed, considering both Initial Teacher Education and career-long professional learning. A paperback version was published in July 2019.

Abstract: Developing the expertise of primary classteachers starts by summarising briefly the author’s previous work, emphasising that expertise is manifested in many different ways, specific to particular contexts and hard to describe. Teacher expertise involves a mixture of subject, craft, personal/interpersonal and case knowledge. Primary classteacher expertise requires a deep understanding of how young children learn and their common misconceptions, emphasising pedagogical content knowledge, a repertoire of pedagogies and a fluid, intuitive and reciprocal approach to planning, assessment and teaching. The many parallel strands of primary classteachers’ expertise are developed on a continuum over time, requiring regular, sustained professional learning, relating theory to practice, with the years soon after qualification especially significant. The constraints on manifesting expertise, those inherent in the primary classroom and from external expectations, must be recognised and overcome in order to build confidence and encourage informed intuition. The professional knowledge and judgement required in complex, fluid situations is learned mainly through guided practice and experience backed by theory and reflection. Primary classteachers’ attunement to children’s responses, commitment, sense of agency and professional, collective identity, understanding of their wider role, and ability to challenge their own assumptions help in developing expertise. A mixture of mechanisms, based on an ‘enriched apprenticeship’ model, including observation of other teachers, practice, mentoring, engagement with research, discussion and reflection is advocated. Key issues for different groups are highlighted, emphasising the value of supportive professional learning communities and that policy must enable rather than constrain teachers’ creativity and ability and willingness to innovate.

Details of how to order are on the Bloomsbury website. A widget which includes the cover and some of the text can be seen on this link.

‘New Perspectives on Young Children’s Moral Education-Developing Character through a Virtues Ethics Approach‘ was published by Bloomsbury in December 2015. Details of how to order are on the Bloomsbury website.

In exploring how to approach young children’s moral education in a world of uncertainty and change, Tony Eaude challenges many current assumptions about education and ethics, arguing that a moral dimension runs through every aspect of life. Ethics is about learning to act and interact appropriately. This calls for an inclusive approach, permeating children’s whole lives rather than occurring only in particular settings, programmes or lessons. Drawing accessibly on research, especially neuroscience and psychology, New perspectives on young children’s moral education discusses how young children learn, highlighting the complex interrelationship between emotion and cognition, culture and identity. The importance of agency, habituation and feedback, within a context of caring relationships and role models, is emphasised. Tony Eaude explores the terms character, virtues and values and how a vocabulary of ethics can help children understand and internalise qualities associated with living ‘a good life’. Empathy, and intrinsic motivation, so that children are equipped to resist strong external pressures, are developed through small, often apparently insignificant, actions. The features of inclusive learning environments which help children belong and practice, and think about, these qualities are considered, highlighting the need for space, care and flexibility. This emphasises the importance of trusted adults attuned to children’s needs, guiding more than telling, providing good role models and exercising judgement. Recognising possible challenges and pitfalls, the book argues for a constructivist approach based on an ethic of care, virtue ethics and an apprenticeship model, where how to act appropriately is exemplified and practiced in real-life situations.

How do expert primary classroom teachers really work? – a guide for teachers, headteachers and teacher educators was published by Critical Publishing in November 2012. This is a short and accessible book which draws on the research on expertise in general and on teacher expertise, summarised in Chapter 21 of the Cambridge Primary Review. This is used to provide the basis for a discussion of the expertise of the primary classteacher. It provides new insights into the complexity of the role and what is distinctive about primary education. Some of the key ideas are summarised in a powerpoint of a keynote talk given in May 2014 which can be downloaded from expertiseppt (pptx, 84K) Details of how to order the book are in the right hand column of this page and on the Critical Publishing website.

In June 2015, Tony Eaude’s chapter ‘Expertise, Knowledge and Pedagogy in the primary classroom‘ was published as part of ‘Education and Childhood: From current certainties to new visions’ by Routledge.

Thinking Through Pedagogy for Primary and Early Years was published by January 2011 by Learning Matters. This practical, accessible book encourages a deep, often challenging, consideration of how young children learn and how teachers and other adults best support their learning. Essential reading for education students, it draws on research and practice to help readers reflect critically on their beliefs and practice. After comparing different views of pedagogy, it explores children’s development and the importance of culture and context, emphasising the attributes of successful learners, relationships and the learning environment. Readers are helped think through how different aspects of pedagogy are interlinked and consider the implications for breadth, balance, planning and assessment and continuing professional development.

The book begins by comparing different views of pedagogy, drawing on traditions in England and other countries, going on to explore children’s development and the importance of culture and context. Readers are encouraged to think through how different aspects of pedagogy are interlinked, emphasising the attributes of successful learners, relationships and the learning environment. Practical guidance in areas such as planning and assessment and continuing professional development is offered. Throughout, structured critical thinking exercises help readers to reflect on their beliefs and their practice.

Children’s Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development – Primary and Early Years was published in August 2006. More details can be seen by accessing this link or the one on the right hand side of this page. The main audience is teachers in training but it will also be of interest both to those already teaching and working with young children and others who wish to explore what spiritual, moral, social and cultural development is all about. A second edition was published in January 2008.

Chapters in books contains details of chapters which Tony Eaude has had published:

  • ‘Differing views of professionalism – implications for primary teachers’, ‘Learning to enquire: the role of the humanities’ and ‘Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development’ all in A Broad and Balanced Curriculum in Primary Schools: Educating the whole child edited by Susan Ogier and published by SAGE in June 2019.
  • ‘Addressing the needs of the whole child – implications for young children and adults who care for them’ in the International Handbook of Holistic Education published by Routledge in 2018.
  • ‘Building the foundations of global citizenship in young children’ in ‘Re-enchanting Education and Spiritual Well-Being’ published by Routledge in 2018.
  • ‘Is there no escape from the legacy of elementary education?’ in ‘A Generation of Radical Educational Change – Stories from the field’ published by Routledge in December 2015.
  • ‘Expertise, Knowledge and Pedagogy in the primary classroom’ in ‘Education and Childhood: From current certainties to new visions’ published by Routledge in June 2015.
  • ‘Creativity and Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development’ in the third edition of ‘Creativity in Primary Education’, published by SAGE/ Learning Matters in 2015.
  • ‘The role of the primary teacher in a time of change’ published in the second edition of ‘Learning to teach in the Primary School’ (Routledge) in 2010, revised for the third edition published in 2014.
  • ‘Spiritual and Moral Development’ in ‘Debates in Religious Education’ published by Routledge in July 2011.
  • ‘Should teachers adopt differential strategies for young boys and girls in relation to spiritual development?’ in the International Handbook of the Religious, Moral and Spiritual Dimensions in Education, published by Springer in 2006.
  • ‘Searching for the Spirit’ in ‘Spiritual Education -Cultural, Religious and Social Differences’ edited by Jane Erricker, Cathy Ota and Clive Erricker published by Sussex Academic Press in 2001.

Academic articles contains details of Tony Eaude’s published articles and how they can be accessed:

  • ‘Reflections on how young children develop a sense of beauty and should be guided in doing so,’ British Journal of Educational Studies 2023 (online only- print version to follow) (this is open access)
  • ‘Revisiting some half-forgotten ideas on children’s spirituality’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2023.
  • ‘The role of culture and traditions in how young children’s identities are constructed’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2019.
  • ‘Fundamental British values? possible implications for children’s spirituality’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2018.
  • ‘Humanities in the primary school – philosophical considerations’ Education 3-13, 2017
  • ‘The future of the humanities in primary schools – reflections in troubled times’ co-authored with Graham Butt, Simon Catling and Peter Vass Education 3-13, 2017.
  • ‘Creating hospitable space to nurture children’s spirituality -possibilities and dilemmas associated with power’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2014.
  • ‘What makes primary classteachers special? Exploring the features of expertise in the primary classroom’ Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 2014.
  • ‘Starting from how young children learn: A rationale from psychology for religious educators in the early years’ Journal of Religious Education, 2011.
  • ‘Happiness, Emotional Well-being and Mental Health – what has children’s spirituality to offer?’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2009.
  • ‘Should religious educators be wary of Values Education?’ Journal of Religious Education, 2008.
  • ‘Strangely Familiar? Teachers Making Sense of Young Children’s Spiritual Development’ Early Years, 2005.
  • ‘Do young boys and girls have distinct and different approaches and needs in relation to spiritual development?’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2004.
  • ‘Shining Lights in Unexpected Corners: new angles on young children’s spiritual development’ International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 2003.

Tony Eaude co-edited a themed issue of the journal Education 3-13 volume 45 issue 3 published in 2017. This reviewed the current situation in the four jurisdictions of the UK – Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and England- and other articles on how the humanities can be broadly conceived and should be taught. Included in that issue were the Editorial, his article Humanities in the primary school – philosophical considerations and an article of which he was the main author entitled The future of the humanities in primary schools – reflections in troubled times. Copies can be obtained by contacting the author who would also value feedback from those interested in the questions raised.

His brief article called Assessing the humanities through a portfolio approach was published in the journal Forum Volume 59, number 2, in 2017.

A ‘Counterblast’, called Bowling Alone – what can schools do to promote cohesive communities?, launched at the 3rd Annual NET Lecture given by Shami Chakrabarti in March 2009, can be downloaded at bowlingalone (doc, 128K) It argues that the community cohesion agenda too often focuses on ethnicity as what splits communities, whereas class and age are two of the key faultlines in all communities; and that policies on parental choice tend to undermine real community cohesion. A hard copy can be requested by contacting the author.

Dr. Tony Eaude’s D. Phil. thesis ‘Beyond Awe and Wonder: how teachers of young children understand spiritual development’ . This page includes the abstract of the thesis and the main text downloadable, as two files. This has not yet been completed for the appendices, but these are available by contacting Dr Tony Eaude.

‘New Perspectives on Spiritual Development’ was published by the National Primary Trust in 2003. The text can be downloaded following this link, but please read the cautionary note about this file.

‘Enhancing Achievement for Young Bilingual Learners -lessons from the experience of Bangladeshi heritage children’ was published in March 2007. Details of how to order and a Word copy of the audit can be found following this link.

‘Values Education – developing positive attitudes’ is a short booklet mainly for teachers drawing on an evalaution of the Values Education approach in nine schools.

‘Collective Worship- Time for a change?’ was published in Summer 2007 in issue 3 of Primary First, the journal for primary schools produced by the National Association for Primary Education. A copy can be obtained by contacting Tony Eaude.

Other books and pamphlets for teachers and parents includes ‘Playing for Life’ and three short books for parents called ‘Primary Education -a guide to the junior years’, ‘Learning difficulties’ and ‘Successful Learning -from birth to the primary years’; and details on how to get hold of them.